What is microcontroller?
A microcontroller (sometimes abbreviated µC, uC or MCU) is a small computer on a single integrated circuit containing a processor core, memory, and programmable input/output peripherals. Program memory in the form of NOR flash or OTP ROM is also often included on chip, as well as a typically small amount of RAM. Microcontrollers are designed for embedded applications, in contrast to the microprocessors used in personal computers or other general purpose applications.
Intel MCS-51 or 8051
Overview of the 8051
- Made by Intel in 1981
- An 8-bit, single-chip microcontroller optimized for control applications
- 128 bytes RAM, 4096 bytes (4KB) ROM, 2 timers, 1 serial port, 4 I/O ports
- 40 pins in a dual in-line package (DIP) layout
General Physical Features
128 bytes internal RA
4 register banks of 8 bytes each (R0-R7)
16 bytes of bit-addressable area
80 bytes of general purpose memory
Four 8-bit I/O ports (P0-P3)
Two 16-bit timers (Timer0 & Timer1)
One serial receiver-transmitter interface
Five interrupt sources (2 external & 3 internal)
One oscillator (generates clock signal)
The 8051 Block Diagram
The 8051 Pin Assignments
Pins 1-8: Port 1 Each of these pins can be configured as an input or an output.
Pin 9: RST A logic one on this pin disables the microcontroller and clears the contents of most registers. In other words, the positive voltage on this pin resets the microcontroller. By applying logic zero to this pin, the program starts execution from the beginning.
Pins10-17: Port 3 Similar to port 1, each of these pins can serve as general input or output. Besides, all of them have alternative functions:
Pin 10: RXD Serial asynchronous communication input or Serial synchronous communication output.
Pin 11: TXD Serial asynchronous communication output or Serial synchronous communication clock output.
Pin 12: INT0 Interrupt 0 input.
Pin 13: INT1 Interrupt 1 input.
Pin 14: T0 Counter 0 clock input.
Pin 15: T1 Counter 1 clock input.
Pin 16: WR Write to external (additional) RAM.
Pin 17: RD Read from external RAM.
Pin 18, 19: X2, X1 Internal oscillator input and output. A quartz crystal which specifies operating frequency is usually connected to these pins. Instead of it, miniature ceramics resonators can also be used for frequency stability. Later versions of microcontrollers operate at a frequency of 0 Hz up to over 50 Hz.
Pin 20: GND Ground.
Pin 21-28: Port 2 If there is no intention to use external memory then these port pins are configured as general inputs/outputs. In case external memory is used, the higher address byte, i.e. addresses A8-A15 will appear on this port. Even though memory with capacity of 64Kb is not used, which means that not all eight port bits are used for its addressing, the rest of them are not available as inputs/outputs.
Pin 29: PSEN If external ROM is used for storing program then a logic zero (0) appears on it every time the microcontroller reads a byte from memory.
Pin 30: ALE Prior to reading from external memory, the microcontroller puts the lower address byte (A0-A7) on P0 and activates the ALE output. After receiving signal from the ALE pin, the external register (usually 74HCT373 or 74HCT375 add-on chip) memorizes the state of P0 and uses it as a memory chip address. Immediately after that, the ALU pin is returned its previous logic state and P0 is now used as a Data Bus. As seen, port data multiplexing is performed by means of only one additional (and cheap) integrated circuit. In other words, this port is used for both data and address transmission.
Pin 31: EA By applying logic zero to this pin, P2 and P3 are used for data and address transmission with no regard to whether there is internal memory or not. It means that even there is a program written to the microcontroller, it will not be executed. Instead, the program written to external ROM will be executed. By applying logic one to the EA pin, the microcontroller will use both memories, first internal then external (if exists).
Pin 32-39: Port 0 Similar to P2, if external memory is not used, these pins can be used as general inputs/outputs. Otherwise, P0 is configured as address output (A0-A7) when the ALE pin is driven high (1) or as data output (Data Bus) when the ALE pin is driven low (0).
Pin 40: VCC +5V power supply.
- 8 and 16 Bit Microcontrollers (electronics-lab.com)